Nora M. Haney1, Alexandra Urman2, Tayab Waseem, Yvonne Cagle3, Jose M. Morey4
1The Brady Urologic Institute at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Urman Consulting, Albany, NY, USA; 3Department of Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA; 4NASA’s Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA; 5Eisenhower Fellow, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 6Liberty BioSecurity, Arlington, VA, USA; 7Department of Medicine and Artificial Intelligence, Singularity University, Santa Clara, CA, USA
Astronauts are commonly portrayed returning to earth in a state of physical weakness (1). Space travel in both human and animals has shown that no organ system in the human body is spared from the effects. Scientists have explored how intense terrain changes the human body with experiments in places such as the desert, tundra and deep sea, but there are obvious limitations to recreating the nuances associated with being outside of low earth orbit (LEO) (2).
The increasing capacities of space flight comes at a time when artificial intelligence (AI) is beginning to be used on earth to mitigate health risks and predict disease prevalence. AI is defined as the performance of tasks that typically require human intelligence such as visual perception, decision-making, and pattern recognition (5). The objective of this review is two-fold: Part I presents a summary of derangements that occur outside of LEO by physiologic system (Table 1), while Part II reviews current and future AI solutions to help bridge the gap between the unknown and long-term space flight (Table 2).